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boundary values software testing

# Software Testing - Boundary Values Testing

```WHAT IS BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS IN SOFTWARE TESTING?

Concepts:   Boundary value analysis is a methodology for
designing test cases that concentrates software testing effort on cases
near the limits of valid ranges Boundary value analysis is a method
which refines equivalence partitioning.  Boundary value analysis
generates test cases that highlight errors better than equivalence
partitioning. The trick is to concentrate software testing efforts at
the extreme ends of the equivalence classes.  At those points
when input values change from valid to invalid errors are most
likely to occur.  As well, boundary value analysis broadens the
portions of the business requirement document used to generate tests.
Unlike equivalence partitioning, it takes into account the output
specifications when deriving test cases.

HOW DO YOU PERFORM BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS?

Once again, you'll need to perform two steps:
1.	Identify the equivalence classes.
2.	Design test cases.
But the details vary. Let's examine each step.

STEP 1:    IDENTIFY EQUIVALENCE CLASSES

Follow the same rules you used in equivalence partitioning.  However,
consider the output specifications as well.  For example, if the output
specifications for the inventory system stated
that a  report on inventory should indicate a total quantity for all
products no  greater than 999,999, then you d add the following classes
to the ones you  found previously:
6.  The valid class   ( 0 < = total quantity on hand < = 999,999    )
7.  The invalid class   (total quantity on hand <0)
8.  The invalid class   (total quantity on hand> 999,999 )

STEP 2:    DESIGN TEST CASES

In this step, you derive test cases from the equivalence classes.  The
process is similar to that of equivalence partitioning but the rules for
designing test cases differ.  With equivalence partitioning, you may select
any test case within a range and any on either side of it  with boundary
analysis, you focus your attention on cases close to the edges of the range.
The detailed rules for generating test cases follow:

RULES FOR TEST CASES
1. If the condition is a range of values, create valid test cases for each
end of the range and invalid test cases just beyond each end of the
range.  For example, if a valid range of quantity on hand is  -9,999
through 9,999, write test cases that include:
1.	the valid test case  quantity on hand is  -9,999,
2.	the valid test case  quantity on hand is 9,999,
3.	the invalid test case  quantity on hand is -10,000  and
4.	the invalid test case  quantity on hand is   10,000

You may combine valid classes wherever possible, just as you did
with equivalence partitioning, and, once again, you may not combine
invalid classes.  Don�t forget to consider output conditions as well.  In
our inventory example the output conditions generate the following test cases:

1.	the valid test case total quantity on hand is  0,
2.	the valid test case total quantity on hand is 999,999
3.	the invalid test case total quantity on hand is -1  and
4.	the invalid test case total quantity on hand is  1,000,000

2.   A similar rule applies where the, condition states that the number of
values must lie within a certain range  select two valid test cases, one
for each boundary of the range, and two invalid test cases, one just
below and one just above the acceptable range .
3. Design tests that highlight the first and last records in an input or
output file.
4.Look for any other extreme input or output conditions, and generate a
test for each of them.

SUMMARY
In this lesson, you learned

how boundary value
analysis refines these test cases and derives others by examining output
specifications as well as inputs.  Using either of these techniques,
preferably, the second, wherever possible , you'll be able to test your,
system.  But what if the system is complex? In that case, there are bound
to be many modules to test  How do you plan the order in which to test them?
That is the subject of the next lesson.

Definition of Boundary Value Analysis from our Software Testing Dictionary:
Boundary Value Analysis (BVA).  BVA is different from equivalence
partitioning in that it focuses on "corner cases" or values that are usually
out of range as defined by the specification. This means that if function
expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would
include negative 101 and positive 1001. BVA attempts to derive the value often
used as a technique for stress, load or volume testing. This type of validation
is usually performed after positive functional validation has completed
(successfully) using requirements specifications and user documentation

```
An experienced tester would consider write some Boundary Value test cases that cover the following scenarios:
Using Not a Number. ( NaN variables )
Using floating-point values (a number with a decimal point)
You can use tools like FsCheck to generate a random values for testing to populate Boundary Values of your system under test.

```A definition of Equivalence Partitioning from our software testing dictionary:
Equivalence Partitioning: An approach where classes of inputs are
categorized for product or function validation. This usually does not include
combinations of input, but rather a single state value based by class. For
example, with a given function there may be several classes of input that may be
used for positive testing. If function expects an integer and receives an
integer as input, this would be considered as positive test assertion. On the
other hand, if a character or any other input class other than integer is
provided, this would be considered a negative test assertion or condition.

```
```Equivalence partitioning definition from From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A technique in black box testing is equivalence partitioning. Equivalence
partitioning is designed to minimize the number of test cases by dividing
tests in such a way that the system is expected to act the same way for all
tests of each equivalence partition. Test inputs would be selected from each partition.

Equivalence partitions are designed so that every possible input belongs
to one and only one equivalence partition.
```
END BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS IN SOFTWARE TESTING.

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© January 2002 Alex Samurin geocities.com/xtremetesting/