INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE TESTING.


Table Of Contents of the book "INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE TESTING by Paul Ammann and Jeff Offutt, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS., 2008


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Part 1 Overview 						1
1 Introduction 							3
1.1 Activities of a Test Engineer 				4
1.1.1 Testing Levels Based on Software Activity 		5
1.1.2 Beizerís Testing Levels Based on Test Process Maturity 	8
1.1.3 Automation of Test Activities 				10
1.2 Software Testing Limitations and Terminology 		11
1.3 Coverage Criteria for Testing 				16
1.3.1 Infeasibility and Subsumption 				20
1.3.2 Characteristics of a Good Coverage Criterion 		20
1.4 Older Software Testing Terminology 				21
1.5 Bibliographic Notes 					22
Part 2 Coverage Criteria 					25
2 Graph Coverage 						27
2.1 Overview 							27
2.2 Graph Coverage Criteria 					32
2.2.1 Structural Coverage Criteria 				33
2.2.2 Data Flow Criteria 					44
2.2.3 Subsumption Relationships among Graph Coverage Criteria 	50
2.3 Graph Coverage for Source Code 				52
2.3.1 Structural Graph Coverage for Source Code 		52
2.3.2 Data Flow Graph Coverage for Source Code 			54
2.4 Graph Coverage for Design Elements 				65
2.4.1 Structural Graph Coverage for Design Elements 		65
2.4.2 Data Flow Graph Coverage for Design Elements 		67
2.5 Graph Coverage for Specifications 				75
2.5.1 Testing Sequencing Constraints 				75
2.5.2 Testing State Behavior of Software 			77
2.6 Graph Coverage for Use Cases 				87
2.6.1 Use Case Scenarios 					90
2.7 Representing Graphs Algebraically 				91
2.7.1 Reducing Graphs to Path Expressions 			94
2.7.2 Applications of Path Expressions 				96
2.7.3 Deriving Test Inputs 					96
2.7.4 Counting Paths in a Flow Graph and Determining Max Path Length 97
2.7.5 Minimum Number of Paths to Reach All Edges 		98
2.7.6 Complementary Operations Analysis 			98
2.8 Bibliographic Notes 					100
3 Logic Coverage 						104
3.1 Overview: Logic Predicates and Clauses 			104
3.2 Logic Expression Coverage Criteria 				106
3.2.1 Active Clause Coverage 					107
3.2.2 Inactive Clause Coverage 					111
3.2.3 Infeasibility and Subsumption 				112
3.2.4 Making a Clause Determine a Predicate 			113
3.2.5 Finding Satisfying Values 				115
3.3 Structural Logic Coverage of Programs 			120
3.3.1 Predicate Transformation Issues 				127
3.4 Specification-Based Logic Coverage 				131
3.5 Logic Coverage of Finite State Machines 			134
3.6 Disjunctive Normal Form Criteria 				138
3.7 Bibliographic Notes 					147
4 Input Space Partitioning 					150
4.1 Input Domain Modeling 					152
4.1.1 Interface-Based Input Domain Modeling 			153
4.1.2 Functionality-Based Input Domain Modeling 		154
4.1.3 Identifying Characteristics 				154
4.1.4 Choosing Blocks and Values 				156
4.1.5 Using More than One Input Domain Model 			158
4.1.6 Checking the Input Domain Model 				158
4.2 Combination Strategies Criteria 				160
4.3 Constraints among Partitions 				165
4.4 Bibliographic Notes 					166
5 Syntax-Based Testing 						170
5.1 Syntax-Based Coverage Criteria 				170
5.1.1 BNF Coverage Criteria 					170
5.1.2 Mutation Testing 						173
5.2 Program-Based Grammars 					176
5.2.1 BNF Grammars for Languages 				176
5.2.2 Program-Based Mutation 					176
5.3 Integration and Object-Oriented Testing 			191
5.3.1 BNF Integration Testing 					192
5.3.2 Integration Mutation 					192
5.4 Specification-Based Grammars 				197
5.4.1 BNF Grammars 						198
5.4.2 Specification-Based Mutation 				198
5.5 Input Space Grammars 					201
5.5.1 BNF Grammars 						201
5.5.2 Mutation for Input Grammars 				204
5.6 Bibliographic Notes 					210
Part 3 Applying Criteria in Practice 				213
6 Practical Considerations 					215
6.1 Regression Testing 						215
6.2 Integration and Testing 					217
6.2.1 Stubs and Drivers 					218
6.2.2 Class Integration Test Order 				218
6.3 Test Process 						219
6.3.1 Requirements Analysis and Specification 			220
6.3.2 System and Software Design 				221
6.3.3 Intermediate Design 					222
6.3.4 Detailed Design 						223
6.3.5 Implementation 						223
6.3.6 Integration 						224
6.3.7 System Deployment 					224
6.3.8 Operation and Maintenance 				224
6.3.9 Summary 							225
6.4 Test Plans 							225
6.5 Identifying Correct Outputs 				230
6.5.1 Direct Verification of Outputs 				230
6.5.2 Redundant Computations 					231
6.5.3 Consistency Checks 					231
6.5.4 Data Redundancy 						232
6.6 Bibliographic Notes 					233
7 Engineering Criteria for Technologies 			235
7.1 Testing Object-Oriented Software 				236
7.1.1 Unique Issues with Testing OO Software 			237
7.1.2 Types of Object-Oriented Faults 				237
7.2 Testing Web Applications and Web Services 			256
7.2.1 Testing Static Hyper Text Web Sites 			257
7.2.2 Testing Dynamic Web Applications 				257
7.2.3 Testing Web Services 					260
7.3 Testing Graphical User Interfaces 				260
7.3.1 Testing GUIs 						261
7.4 Real-Time Software and Embedded Software 			262
7.5 Bibliographic Notes 					265
8 Building Testing Tools 					268
8.1 Instrumentation for Graph and Logical Expression Criteria 	268
8.1.1 Node and Edge Coverage 					268
8.1.2 Data Flow Coverage 					271
8.1.3 Logic Coverage 						272
8.2 Building Mutation Testing Tools 				272
8.2.1 The Interpretation Approach 				274
8.2.2 The Separate Compilation Approach 			274
8.2.3 The Schema-Based Approach 				275
8.2.4 Using Java Reflection 					276
8.2.5 Implementing a Modern Mutation System 			277
8.3 Bibliographic Notes 					277
9 Challenges in Testing Software 				280
9.1 Testing for Emergent Properties: Safety and Security 	280
9.1.1 Classes of Test Cases for Emergent Properties 		283
9.2 Software Testability 					284
9.2.1 Testability for Common Technologies 			285
9.3 Test Criteria and the Future of Software Testing 		286
9.3.1 Going Forward with Testing Research 			288
9.4 Bibliographic Notes 					290
List of Criteria 						293
Bibliography 							295
Index 319
 


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